أدب أنجليزي 1 - جامعة الخليل
Literature 1 Summarization
نشر في 09 يوليوز 2017 وآخر تعديل بتاريخ 10 يوليوز 2017 .
Anglo Saxon Society
What is the major characteristic of the Anglo Saxon Society (A.S.S)?
1. They convert Christianity in 579 at the hand of ST Augustine.
2. They worshipper various Norse gods. القصد انهم بيعبدو اكتر من اله
3. They intermarriage between Christianity and there pagans.
4. The (A.S.S) divided into two classes: Ruling class, Bond class.
5. The mead hall (Heorot).
هاد اسم ثاني للميد هول ، ممكن المحاضر يسألك عن الميد هول بالامتحان بس بالاسم التاني الي هو (هاروت)
• The name of the hero and the title of the poem.
• It’s a long narrative poem.
• It's almost 3200 line.
• It’s the lonely epic whose express about the English literature in this period.
• This literature begins oral.
طبعا تعتبر الملحمة الوحيد الي بتعبر عن الادب الانجليزي في الفترة القديمة , والرومان نقلوها عن الكنتري تبعتهم للاتقلاند وعملوا الها تيكست لانهم كانوا بيتناقلوها شفويا
Characteristic of the poem (Beowulf):
1. The alliteration verse and head rhyme, is almost similar.
2. Full of boasting.
3. Long speeches and celebration.
4. Anticipating events. القصد بتحكي الاحداث قبل ما تصير (تنبأ)
5. Digression into history and genealogy.
6. Caesura each line of poem is divided into two half.
7. Hemistich, each half line has two strong stress.
في سؤال حابوا النا المحاضر في الامتحان بيحكي في شو الفرق بين الأليتيريشن رايم وبين الهيد رايم
• What the differentiates between head rhyme and alliteration?
If the word begin with the same letter is alliteration and if the word begin with the same sound is head rhyme.
The story of Beowulf
In Beowulf we have two kingdoms:
THE STORY IS:
Denise kingdom has a king his name is Hrothgar and this king do some celebration in the mead hall and this kingdom have a foul monster called Grendel and he lives in the moor and he half man and half devil. When the king Hrothgar do celebration in the mead hall Grendel be angry so he came in the mead hall and killed a lot of warriors, so the king Hrothgar implore and sent a massage for the king of south of Sweden called Hegyelac and this king sent Beowulf with fourteen warriors to help him, then Denise kingdom do celebrate for that to welcome the warriors, and Grendel came as always so he killed a lot but when he grasped the hand of Beowulf he feel this person is very strong so he try to run in his moor but Beowulf grasped hand's Grendel and Beowulf killed him.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD - BACKGROUND
• Edward the confessor was half Norman in blood but wholly Norman in outlook , before he became king of England in 1042, he had spent thirty years at the Norman court , he learning the French language and customs and making French friends.
• Edward died on January , 1066 without an heir.
• When Edward died , the throne was claimed by both Harold Godwinson of England and William the conqueror , Duke of Normandy.
• Godwinson was the choice of the king’s council.
• William claimed that Edward had declared him as heir to the English throne.
• After a hasty coronation Harold marched north to battle the viking army of another claimed and killed.
• Three days later William landed at on England bay with an army big enough to defeat king Harold Godwinson after a great war.
William the conqueror had introduced three major things:
1. He took all the lands from the Anglo-Saxon, and distributed them among the 180 of his followers , in exchange for a solemn oath of loyalty to him and promise of military service . This is known as a FEUDALISM , and all the landowners in England became vassal of the king.
2. He initiated the work on the tower of London, designed to protect the city.
3. He introduced an efficient taxation system after carrying out a survey of his entire kingdom , causing a great resentment among his followers.
When he was born there were several major events:
a) The plague known as the Black Death smote the country 3 times during his lifetime.
b) The 100 years war with France had begun.
About his life:
· He was born around 1340, and died in 1400.
· He rose socially through his marriage.
· In 1368, he became on of the king's esquires.
· He was not a peasant, not a priest.
· His father was a wine merchant.
· He was taken prisoner in France but ransomed by the king of England himself.
· He studied the science and the arts, the literatures of France and Italy, all those had their part to play in making Chaucer on of the best equipped of English poets/
· He was intelligence had a strong sense of honors, a fine musical ear, and the ability to tell a story.
· In the Canterbury tales, he wrote only 24 stories because he died/
Chaucer achievements are many:
1. He patriotically confined himself to using the East Midland dialect of English that was spoking in London. Basically he created the English language as we know it today.
2. He speaks to us today with as clear voice as was heard in his own age, it's this living quality that makes him great.
3. He is modern in the sense that the language he uses is for the first time in the history of English literature, recognizably the language of our time.
The Canterbury Tales
Collection of short stories had been popular for a long time on the continent. It portrays all temperaments and positions and mingle them together, make them tell stories, and make these stories illustrate their own characters.
The Story Of Pilgrim:
Every year Christians do a pilgrimage toward one of the holy towns of England. Which is Canterbury, where is the shrine of Thomas Becket, the martyr who was killed at the hand of Henry II.
All the pilgrims from all social classes except the nobles and riffraff. The pilgrims travel in companies having usually met each other at some such starting point or the Tabard Inn and there is a host his name is Hairy Bailey and he suggested a bet between all the pilgrims including Chaucer that every one of them have to come up with four stories; two in the way to the shrine and two on the way back.
The Renaissance – Background
Rebirth of scholarship based on classical learning and philosophy; rebirth of human spirit. Intellectual movement in Italy inspired by fourteen century manuscripts from ancient Greece and Rome. It spread from Italy to European countries.
· Da Vici: Italian Renaissance artist and inventor he had plans in his notebook for flying machines, a parachute, and war machinery.
· In religion: The Renaissance spirit brought about the Protestant Renaissance, including the founding of the Lutheran Church and the Church of England.
· In science: Nicolaus Copernicus, in Poland asserted that the earth was not the center of the universe, and in Italy, Galileo conducted astronomical investigation with a new invention the telescope.
· The Renaissance was an age of discovery colonization of new lands, Sir Francis Drake sailed for England around the world proving once and for all that earth is round. (ما فهمت القصد بالضبط من ايرث از راوند !!)
The Renaissance In England
The Renaissance in England may be divided into three parts:
1. The rise of the Renaissance under the early Tudor monarchs (1500-1558).
2. The height of the Renaissance under Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
3. The decline of the Renaissance under the Stuart monarchs (1603-1649).
الدكتور ما ركز النا بالزبط على اخر فترة الي هي(1603-1649) اضن لضيق الوقت !!!
The Rise – 1500-1558
The reasons behind the rise:
1. 1485, year war Rose ended. Henry VII was crowned and domestic unrest ended. Under the reign of his son, Henry VIII, England was ripe for intellectual ferment of the Renaissance.
2. In 1605, the population had begun to increase rapidly (224,000 هاد العدد الي وصل الو عدد السكان في ذيك الفترة)
3. Feudalism was on its deathbed, Enclosure Laws: Reason cities and towns in England grew, large open areas were now fenced in.
4. Agricultural workers, moved to cities for a better chance to find work.
5. Printing press: made the rapid spread of knowledge possible. By 1640, it printed more than 26000 different works and editions William Caxton set up England's first printing press in 1476 during the war of the Rose.
6. Oxford Group: Introduced the New Learning to Oxford Group university in 1490 and 1500, New Learning: humanism studies concerned with human interest and values.
In 1540, John Colet one of the Original Oxford Group became Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral. He used inheritance to establish the cathedral school of St. Paul: the first preparatory school to be devoted to teaching the new learning.
طبعا المصطلحات المحددة باللون الازرق تعريفها موجود ورا المصطلح مباشرة
While the Renaissance was rising in England, two events occurred that diminished the influence of the church
1) Henry VIII became head of the Church of England. He wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon who give him a female child and he overthrew papal jurisdiction when the Pope refused, then he married Anne Boleyn in 1534.
2) Martin Luther posted 95 theses to the church door in Wittenberg Germany in 1517.
The Height (1558-1603)
Elizabeth I: under the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1693) order was restored and England entered upon her most glorious age, only twenty-five when she assumed the throne, Elizabeth who never married, was to rule wisely and ell for forty-five years.
The reasons behind the height:
· A master politician, Elizabeth established a strong central government that received the loyal support of her subjects.
Mary Queen of Scots was a Catholic and heir of the throne after Elizabeth, and Elizabeth set in motion a chain of events that led to Mary's beheading in 1587.
Interest in education: she established one hundred free grammar schools in all parts of the country and the education was free for all the kids.
· During Elizabeth's reign, England began to gain supremacy on the seas, Sir Francis Drake his voyage around the world resulted in his returning to England with a treasure from the Spanish that went to Elizabeth treasury.
· Armada: Invasion fleet sent by king Philip II of Spain because he was displeased with Elizabeth and Drake. The English navy defeated it in 1588, it meant that England would remain Protestant and it became a dominant sea power.
· Elizabeth's reign was an age of courtiers, which it's entertainment were notable. A form of entertainment was the mosque, a courtly theatrical spectacle, and it featured, in addition, song and dance, elegant costumes, elaborate sets, and plots based on allegory.
· Elizabeth's period was the golden age of English drama.